Audax Policies

Last Modified: 09/12/2020

Audax Australia Constitution

Audax Australia Regulations

Audax Australia Policies and Rules

Audax Australia Guidelines and Recommendations

The grievance procedure is set out under the Audax Australia Constitution.

  1. The grievance procedure set out in this rule applies to disputes under this Constitution between:
    1. a Member and another Member; or
    2. a Member and the Association.
  2. The parties to the dispute must meet and discuss the matter in dispute, and, if possible, resolve the dispute within 14 days after the dispute comes to the attention of all of the parties.
  3. If the parties are unable to resolve the dispute at the meeting, or if a party fails to attend that meeting, then the parties must, within 10 days, hold a meeting in the presence of a mediator.
  4. The mediator must be:
    1. a person chosen by agreement between the parties; or
    2. in the absence of agreement:
      1. in the case of a dispute between a Member and another Member, a person appointed by the National Committee; or
      2. in the case of a dispute between a Member and the Association, a person who is a mediator appointed or employed by the Dispute Settlement Centre of Victoria (Department of Justice).
  5. A Member can be a mediator.
  6. The mediator cannot be a Member who is a party to the dispute.
  7. The parties to the dispute must, in good faith, attempt to settle the dispute by mediation.
  8. The mediator, in conducting the mediation, must:
    1. give the parties to the mediation process every opportunity to be heard;
    2. allow due consideration by all parties of any written statement submitted by any party; and
    3. ensure that natural justice is accorded to the parties to the dispute throughout the mediation process.
  9. The mediator must not determine the dispute.
  10. If the mediation process does not result in the dispute being resolved, the parties may seek to resolve the dispute in accordance with the Act or otherwise at law.

Join the Conversation

9 Comments

  1. John Mills says:

    Hi,
    I would like to see some recommendations in the safety section regarding the importance of not only being seen by drivers but that riders SEE THE DRIVER.

    I believe a good driver is a defensive driver. That requires the skills of
    1. ‘situational awareness’ (knowing what is around them that might affect the way they control their vehcilt to avoid accidents.
    2. using that knowledge of the surrounding situation to adjust their speed, position on the road, and possibly the need to change course entirely,
    3. Having the skills and vehicle roadworthiness to safely and effectively be able to make those changes.

    Of course having a good knowledge base helps considerably – past expereince, learned knowledge from various sources, . . .

    I believe that all of the above is just as applicable to cyclists as to drivers. We are in control of a vehicle. We are on the roads . . .

    One of the most important pieces of equipment on a motor vehicle is the rear view mirror.

    I would like to see some encouragement/recommendation that our Auda cyclists seriously consider the fitting of a ‘fit for purpose’ rear view mirror.

    by’fit for purpose’ I mean a mirror that is able to give the rider a good image of vehicles that are at least 400m away, or even more. Curved mirrors do not do that.

    As a driving instructor of about ten years experience the first step in the defensive driving regime called ‘a system of car control’ (that I believe was devoloped by the US Air Force (to address their high motor vehicle casualty rate) is to observe what is happening around them – observational skills – scanning, just as a good pilot does to avoid mid-air collisions, and a good driver does too. Situational awareness.

    Many bike riders are hit from behind. Many bike riders do not have a mirror. Many bike riders do not take responsibility for their own safety (by making choices about their position on the road. For example, on a narrow bitumen road with either no sealed verge, or a narrow sealed verge . . .

    1. Car or truck coming towards them. Car or truck coming from behind and will overtake the rider in same vicinity as the oncoming car passing.
    2. Rider approaching a blind corner, or a blind crest. with a vehicle coming from behind, and likely to overtake the rider in the dangerous section of road from about 200m before the blind point.
    3. Rider exiting a blind point on the road, corner or crest, with another blind corner/crest very close ahead i.e twisty roads through the hills.

    If a rider does not have a mirror, a fit for purpose mirror, or has a mirror and/or does not understand the danger of being hit from behind occurs, and does not know the probabilities of drivers not using their brakes to wait until safe to overtake, or does not have the various skills and/or equipment (suitable tyres that can handle some loose gravel if needed) then that rider is putting their safety inot the hands of the driver!

    So I would like to see some recommendations re mirrors, the first step of ‘system of car/bike control explained (know the situation all around them, especially behind – the need of a good mirror), the danger situations affecting rider safety (approaching vehicles on narrow roads, blind points ahead) where the second step of the ‘system of bike control’ (the need to change speed or direction or position on the road to maximise safety), and the need for suitable tyres if the decision is to leave the tarmac.

    Here is just one link for the system of car control. There are thousands! Just as applicable to cyclists as to drivers. More so IMO as cyclists tolerance to collisons is far less than for a driver! Step #1 – Have a mirror and know how/when to use it!
    http://www.roadar-nlsh.org.uk/an-introduction-to-the-system-of-car-control/

  2. John Mills says:

    Sorry, I should have edited that comment above. Here is my second, and I hope more readable version . . .

    I would like to see some recommendations in the safety section regarding the importance of not only being seen by drivers but that riders SEE THE DRIVER.

    I believe a good driver is a defensive driver. A defensive driver requires the skills of
    1. ‘Situational awareness’ (knowing what is around them that might affect the way they control their vehicle to avoid accidents.
    2. Using that knowledge of the surrounding situation to adjust their speed, position on the road, and possibly the need to change course entirely,
    3. Having the skills and vehicle roadworthiness to safely and effectively be able to make those changes.

    Of course having a good knowledge base helps considerably – past experience, learned knowledge from various sources, . . .

    I believe that all of the above is just as applicable to cyclists as to drivers. We are in control of a vehicle. We are on the roads . . .

    One of the most important pieces of equipment on a motor vehicle is the rear view mirror.

    I would like to see some encouragement/recommendations that our Audax cyclists seriously consider the fitting of a ‘fit for purpose’ rear view mirror.
    By ’fit for purpose’ I mean a mirror that is able to give the rider a good image of vehicles that are at least 400m away, or even more. Curved mirrors do not do that.

    As a driving instructor of about ten years’ experience the first step in the defensive driving regime called ‘a system of car control’ is to observe what is happening around them , observational skills, scanning, just as a good pilot does to avoid mid-air collisions, and a good driver does too. Situational awareness!

    Many bike riders are hit from behind. Many bike riders do not have a mirror. Many bike riders do not take responsibility for their own safety, by not making choices about their position on the road.. Examples of where and when a rider should consider changing their position on the road are;

    . . . on a narrow bitumen road with either no sealed verge, or a narrow sealed verge, and . . .
    1. A car or truck coming towards them. Car or truck coming from behind and will overtake the rider in same vicinity as the oncoming car passing, or.
    2. A rider approaching a blind corner, or a blind crest with a vehicle coming from behind, and likely to overtake the rider in the dangerous section of road from about 200m before the blind point, or
    3. A rider exiting a blind point on the road, corner or crest, with another blind corner/crest very close ahead i.e. twisty roads through the hills.

    If a rider does not have a mirror, a fit for purpose mirror, or has a mirror and –
    – does not understand when the danger of being hit from behind occurs,
    – or does not know the probabilities of drivers not using their brakes to wait until safe to overtake,
    – or does not have the various skills and/or equipment (suitable tyres that can handle some loose gravel if needed) . . .
    . . . then that rider is putting their safety into the hands of the driver!

    So I would like to see some recommendations re mirrors, the first step of ‘system of car/bike control explained –
    1. Know the situation all around them, especially behind – hence the need of a good mirror), and
    – know the danger situations affecting rider safety (approaching vehicles on narrow roads, blind points ahead)

    Also understand the second step of the ‘system of car/bike control’
    2. Understand the need to change speed or direction or position on the road to maximise safety.

    For example a rider may decide the best course of action is to leave the narrow sealed section and move onto the gravel verge, so that two cars, or two trucks, or a car Vs truck can pass each other without risking the rider’s life!,
    So the need for suitable width tyres if the decision is to leave the tarmac.

    Another possible action is that 1. having noted a blind corner abut 400m ahead, then 2. checked the mirror and seen a vehicle approaching from behind, the first two stages of a system of car control, . . .

    instead of just continuing towards that blind corner at speed, the rider might simply decide to slow down a bit, until that vehicle has gone past. If that overtake has happened at least 200m before the blind spot, then even if another vehicle appears from that blind spot, then there is no danger to the cyclist. Where-as if the cyclist had continued on at speed, . . . .!

    Here is just one link for the ‘system of car control’. There are many from all around the world! Including most states of Australia. It is just as applicable to cyclists as to drivers. More so IMO as a cyclist’s tolerance to a collision is far less than for a driver! Step #1 –

    In just a few words – Have a mirror and know how and when to use it!

    http://www.roadar-nlsh.org.uk/an-introduction-to-the-system-of-car-control/

  3. John Mills says:

    The System of Car Control (Defensive Driving)
    and the Use of a Mirror on a Bicycle

    I would like to see some recommendations in the Audax safety section regarding the importance of not only being seen by drivers but that riders see the driver..

    I believe a good driver is a defensive driver. A defensive driver uses the simple system called The System of Car Control. It has four basic steps, and is used to train drivers throughout Australia and around the world.

    It is also used to train motor cycle riders, and since we are road users, in control of a vehicle, a two wheeled vehicle, I believe it is very relevant to cyclists too.

    It was first devised by the US Air Force in the 1950s to stop their members from dying – not in the skies, but on the roads going to and from work!

    The four main steps in this system to avoiding an accident are.

    1. Continually scan ahead and behind to observe what is around you (‘Situational awareness’)

    2. Based on past experience and knowledge, having observed a potentially dangerous situation ahead, check your mirror to know the full situation at that moment.

    3. Using the observed information and previous experience and learning, decide on the best course of action to avoid a collision.

    4. Then Act. That might mean adjusting speed, position on the road, direction, or a combination of them..

    Having a good knowledge base helps considerably – past experience, learned knowledge from various sources, ,an education initiative from an organization (such as Audax Australia), . . .

    Also having the skills and vehicle roadworthiness to safely and effectively be able to make those changes is important.

    I believe that all of the above is just as applicable to cyclists as to drivers. After all, we are in control of a vehicle. We are on the roads. . . .

    One of the most important pieces of equipment on a motor vehicle is the rear view mirror.
    I would like to see recommendations that our Audax cyclists seriously consider fitting of a ‘fit for purpose’ rear view mirror.

    By ’fit for purpose’ I mean a mirror that is able to give the rider a good image of vehicles that are at least 400m away, or even more. Curved mirrors do not do that.

    Many bike riders are hit from behind. Many bike riders do not have a mirror. Many bike riders are therefore not taking responsibility for their own safety. They are not making choices about their position on the road when they need to.

    If a rider does not have a mirror, a fit for purpose mirror, or has a mirror and –
    – does not understand when the danger of being hit from behind occurs,
    – or does not know the probabilities of drivers not using their brakes to wait until safe to overtake,
    – or does not have the various skills and/or equipment (suitable tyres that can handle some loose gravel if needed) . . .
    . . . then that rider is putting their safety into the hands of the driver!

    So I would like to see our riders learn about the dangerous situations where a rider needs to see, think and then act to avoid a collision. i.e. have the back-ground knowledge to be able to effectively put the system of defensive cycling into action when they need to. .

    Step 1. Observe the situation ahead, recognise that it has the potential for a collision and so . . .

    Step 2. Check the mirror to know the full situation around them..
    .
    Some common situations that I recognise on every ride are

    a) 1. See a vehicle approaching from in front (trigger) on a narrow road, 2. check mirror, and note that a vehicle is also approaching from behind – the ‘three way crossover’ – vehicle/bike/vehicle all trying to share the same piece of narrow road.

    b) 1. See a blind bend ahead (trigger) , so 2. check the mirror and see if a vehicle approaching from behind – the late, unsafe overtake.

    c) the same with a blind crest ahead.

    d) On hilly routes – exiting of blind points, (monitor the mirror until safely away) especially if they see that there is another blind point not far ahead from the first.

    Of course there are many others – round-a-bouts, heavy traffic, impaired visibility situations, animals or pedestrians crossing too close in front, . . .

    Then having observed and understood the danger . . .

    Step 3 .Think, decide and then . . .

    Step 4. Act accordingly.

    Some examples –

    For example a) above, the ‘three way cross-over;

    The rider may decide the best course of action is to leave the narrow sealed section and move onto the gravel verge, so that two cars, or two trucks, or a car Vs truck can pass each other without risking the rider’s life!
    ,
    (Hence the need for suitable width tyres if the decision is to leave the tarmac)

    For example b) above, the ‘blind bend ahead’

    Having noted a blind corner abut 400m ahead, then checked the mirror and seen that a vehicle is approaching from behind, (the first two stages of a system of car control) Instead of just continuing towards that blind corner at speed, the rider might simply decide to slow down a bit, until that vehicle has gone past.

    If that overtake has happened at least 200m before the blind spot, then even if another vehicle appears from that blind spot, then there is no danger to the cyclist. Where-as if the cyclist had continued on at speed, . . . .!

    The System of Car Control It is just as applicable to cyclists as to drivers. More so IMO as a cyclist’s tolerance to a collision is far less than for a driver!

    Step #1 – Scan the situation ahead (and recognise a danger when you see it)
    Step #2 – Check your mirror to get the full picture – the full situation that are in!
    Step #3 – Based on the observations, front, back and side, decide on best course of action
    Step #4 – Act – change speed, direction, or position.

    (if time, signal to other road users. But sometimes there is no time! And on a bike, taking a hand of the bar can be in itself dangerous!

    Without seeing the whole situation (no mirror), and without the knowledge and experience it is very hard to do the thinking, to make a good decision, on the best course of action

    Without a mirror, you are only ever going to see half the ‘story’. And much of the danger comes from behind!

    Below is just one link to the system of car / motor-bike / bicycle control.
    There are many. All with their slight variation to their title, but otherwise basically the same – See (front and back), Think, Act

    http://www.roadar-nlsh.org.uk/an-introduction-to-the-system-of-car-control/

    1. Tom Nankivell says:

      Thanks for your comments and suggestions, John. I shall forward them on to my colleagues on the Risk & Safety Committee for consideration. Tom

      1. John Mills says:

        Thanks Tom, much appreciated.

        The use of mirrors is a contentious issue among the general cycling fraternity. Discussions can become very heated. It is as if you are talking politics, or religion lol. But as outlined in my thoughts above, I believe Audax needs to take a lead in this safety aspect, despite risking losing a few members.

        A strong and well presented case recommending the use of mirrors, and not making them compulsory, as was the previous policy for safety issues, should not lose too many riders. Cheers, John.

  4. John Mills says:

    Actually I saw after writiing that long comment about The System of Car Control, above, that the system was actually devised much earlier than when the US Airforce started to use it. I forget the exact date, but about 20 years earlier, (1920s or 1930s) in Great Britain.

    I also noticed when looking at some of the police driver training web-sites around Austrlaia, that the Northern Territory uses a ‘safety cushion’. or ‘safety bubble’ concept when training drivers. Thatis exactly the mentality that I took in my first few years of driving as a teenager. I was only happy when I had distance between other cars around me – to the side, front and back. If a car was too close I would do smething to get my safety cushion back. And in a sense that is still how I drive today. and how I ride a bike. Am not happy if, on my bike I see the possibility of a car coming too close. Yesterday I was doing a gravel perm. About 90% gravel. There was one short 500m section on a narrow B grade highway. I did something I have never done before. Relating to the safety cushion idea. But also relating to the use of my mirror. I checked the mirror and saw a car aproaching frm behind. I was enjoying the smooth easy ride on this short section of bitumen and did not really want to ‘hit the dirt’. I checked ahead to see if there were any vehicle coming towards me. No, all clear ahead. So that car coming from behind had plenty of tie to cross the centre le and giveme good clearance. I checked the mirror again. No! It was not budging. Now only about 150m behind. Maybe a bit less. So rather than get off onot the gravel to ensure my safety, I actually waved him out away from me! Never tried that before! It worked. Vhecked the mirror again and there he/she was, crossing the centre line! Not sure if that is a safe tactic mind you. Was a spur of the moment thing. But it gave me my ‘safety cushion’! Cheers, John.

  5. Mark Minchinton says:

    Re Mirrors. I don’t want to start a debate or tedious back & forth about mirrors. However, I would not like Audax Australia to mandate them, and I believe AA should be careful even about recommending them. In theory a mirror is a good idea. In practice, I’m not sure they work for all riders, and can even be detrimental to some. I’ve used glasses mounted flat mirrors, flat & curved mirrors mounted on the ends and sides of the handlebars, and flat & curved mirrors mounted on the back of my wrist. I’ve used them for long periods of time (eg, six months or more, and in different countries. In my experience, none of them provided a sufficiently large image for me to accurately judge the speed and distance of vehicles behind me (in short, they don’t supply a full picture), and can sometimes fail to even show that there is a vehicle behind or nearby (for instance, when a vehicle is moving from an outside lane to an inner lane closer to a cyclist). For those who need prescription glasses it can be sometimes difficult to bring the, er, mirror image into focus quickly. The time spent scanning for and focusing on the vehicle in the mirror is time lost from looking ahead; it can lead to the cyclist sometimes deviating from their line—this may be a minute movement, nevertheless it can be dangerous. I’ve seen this happen. Using a mirror still means I have to check over my shoulder—looking in the mirror adds to the time it takes to do that and therefore from the window of opportunity to take any action. Using a mirror, IME, also tends to distract me from listening. Bar mounted mirrors can be struck by close passing cars. Finally, having a mirror just makes me more anxious—and therefore tense, inefficient, and unavailable to other inputs (eg, listening, air pressure &c). I feel much safer choosing my routes carefully, listening actively, looking over my shoulder regularly and especially when turning or changing lanes, and making clear and consistent hand signals. I accept that mirrors work for some, but I think Audax Australia should be careful about setting a precedent that could be used by motoring organisations or coroners to make what could be counter-productive recommendations—or even laws.

  6. Tom Nankivell says:

    Thanks John for your further comments and also to Mark for your follow up. After John’s post, the Risk & Safety Committee (R&SC) had an initial discussion and added a point about the value of mirrors to our ride safety advice webpages (https://audax.org.au/knowledge-base/ride-safety/). We have not taken the broader point about the system of car control John raised further at this stage. Mark, your perspective is an interesting one. Some of your comments remind me of the seatbelt risk compensation argument where is was theorised that mandating seatbelts would see drivers undertaking risker other behaviours, such as driving at greater speeds. As I recall this was not able to be supported empirically, but the idea that safety devices mandated can cause either compensating behaviour or a lulling remain worth bearing in mind. Suffice to say that the RSC did not mandate the use of mirrors; rather, we advised that “It is also sensible to fit a mirror to your bike, particularly for long-distance road cycling.” In light of yours and John’s additional comments, we will review that advice.

  7. John Mills says:

    Hello again! Have edited my article on mirrors further. Please see below.

    Thanks Mark for your input. And Tom and the safety committee to for taking some initial steps on this issue. Very happy to see that.

    I agree with Mark in the aspect that ‘mirrors don’r work for every-one’. But as Mark has explained, it takes some effort to find a decent mirror and to then set it up in an ideal position on the bike.

    There are probably three main points about setting up a mirror onto a bicycle that need to be considered.
    1. The vibration issue – Not a long arm between the mirror and the attachment point to the bars. The longer that arm the more vibrations!
    2. The distance between mirror and eye – The closer the mirror is to the eye, the larger the angle of view. Some mirrors are curved to give a ‘wide angle’ effect. But of course that makes the image so small the car can only be seen when it is so close there is no time to react to it!

    I personally have solved that problem by swapping out my drop bars to flat bars. I have also fitted aero-bars so my head is lower. SO by raising the position of the mirror (on end of a flat bar rather than end of a drop bar) and lowering my head (aero-bars) the mirror is quite close to my eyes! So wider angle of view.

    The problem with a mirror on the end of a drop bar, is that it is so far below eye level (i.e. large distance between eye and mirror) that the angle of view is very narrow!

    3. The durability of the mirror. There are so many cheap, fragile mirrors that just fail so quickly. And probably vibrate too! I have had a few.

    But my Blackburn mirror has lasted for years. Very durable. Non vibration. Does have a slight curve. But it allows me to see a car that is up to 300 – 400 metres away. And that is what you need. A perfectly flat mirror would be even better. But to get the angle of view the width of that mirror would need to be greater. (Yes Mark, the curved mirrors give a false sense of distance. And so it is essential to turn the head when you know that the car is very close, before making a large deviation in your course! My main use of a mirror however is for long distance riding (Audax styel) where I am out on the open road. Vehicles are travelling at high speed and so the cyclist needs to be able to see that vehcile when it is several hundred metres away, and then based on what is up ahead (blind corner/blind crest/on-coming vehicle and narrow road) there is then enough tme to decide and act accordingly. The action in these cases is to either stay on the tarmac, monitring the mirror as needed, or to slow down and move onto the verge, out of harm’s way.

    Rather than making me tense and on edge, the well reheased systems of I have of using my mirror out in the country give me pleasure knowing that I am dong my best to both look after myself, and also make sure I am looking after my fellow road users. The appreciate seeing that I have seen them early, they can see the mirror and see me using it. They appreciate the fact that I may have left the road so that they don’t have to slow right down to a crawl and wait till safe to overtake. They may have been doing 100km/hr and then have to brake down to 15km/hr if I am struggling into a headwind/hill combo! But of course most drivers don’t slow down! Thye just seem to close their eyes and hope they miss me. No thanks. No gambling for me. I just get off the road. On average this happens ‘getting off the road’ happens about 6 to 10 times on a 200km Audax ride. Maybe 60 seconds of lost time all up. Not a lot to lose IMO!

    Here is my lateset version of the ideas of System of Car(bike( Control)/Defensive driving(riding)/Mirrors . . .

    Defensive Riding and The System of Car (and Bike) Control

    I would like to see some recommendations in the Audax safety section regarding the importance of defensive riding by our Audax members. Riders can choose to ride aggressively, or efensively. To maximize their chances of returning home safely I believe the defensive style is the preferred method. And that means knowing the danger points that present themselves during a ride, and the way to mitigate those dangerous situations.

    An important part of that process is knowing what is happening all around. Not just what is in front.

    So it is important that riders are not only easily visible to drivers but that riders see the driver. Especially a vehicle that is approaching from behind..

    I believe a good rider is a defensive rider. A defensive rider should use the same simple system, called The System of Car Control,. that is used to train drivers throughout Australia and around the world. (And has been used since 1936 when it was first devised.

    It is also used to train motor cycle riders, and since we are road users, in control of a vehicle, a two wheeled vehicle, I believe it is just as relevant to cyclists.

    The four main steps in this system to avoiding an accident are.

    1. Continually scan ahead and behind to observe what is around you (‘Situational awareness’)

    2. Based on past experience and knowledge, having observed a potentially dangerous situation ahead, check your mirror to know the full situation at that moment.

    3. Using the observed information and previous experience and learning, decide on the best course of action to avoid a collision.

    4. Then Act. That might mean adjusting speed, position on the road, direction, or a combination of them..

    Having a good knowledge base helps considerably – past experience, learned knowledge from various sources, ,an education initiative from an organization (such as Audax Australia), . . .

    Also having the skills and vehicle roadworthiness to safely and effectively be able to make those changes is important.

    I believe that all of the above is just as applicable to cyclists as to drivers. After all, we are in control of a vehicle. We are on the roads. . . .

    One of the most important pieces of equipment on a motor vehicle is the rear view mirror.
    I would like to see recommendations that our Audax cyclists seriously consider fitting of a ‘fit for purpose’ rear view mirror.

    By ’fit for purpose’ I mean a mirror that is able to give the rider a good image of vehicles that are at least 400m away, or even more. Curved mirrors do not do that.

    Many bike riders are hit from behind. Many bike riders do not have a mirror. Many bike riders are therefore not taking responsibility for their own safety. They are not making choices about their position on the road when they need to.

    If a rider does not have a mirror, a fit for purpose mirror, or has a mirror and –
    – does not understand when the danger of being hit from behind occurs,
    – or does not know the probabilities of drivers not using their brakes to wait until safe to overtake,
    – or does not have the various skills and/or equipment (suitable tyres that can handle some loose gravel if needed) . . .
    . . . then that rider is putting their safety into the hands of the driver!

    So I would like to see our riders learn about the dangerous situations where a rider needs to see, think and then act to avoid a collision. i.e. have the back-ground knowledge to be able to effectively put the system of defensive cycling into action when they need to. .

    Step 1. Observe the situation ahead, recognise that it has the potential for a collision and so . . .

    Step 2. Check the mirror to know the full situation around them..
    .
    Some common situations that I recognise on every ride are

    a) 1. See a vehicle approaching from in front (trigger) on a narrow road, 2. check mirror, and see whether a vehicle is also approaching from behind – the ‘three way crossover’ – vehicle/bike/vehicle all trying to share the same piece of narrow road.

    b) 1. See a blind bend ahead (trigger) , so 2. check the mirror to see if a vehicle isapproaching from behind – the late, unsafe overtake. (Overtaking too close to a blind point ahead.)

    c) the same with a blind crest ahead.

    d) On hilly routes – exiting of blind points, (monitor the mirror until safely away) especially if they see that there is another blind point not far ahead from the first.

    Of course there are many others – round-a-bouts, heavy traffic, impaired visibility situations, animals or pedestrians crossing too close in front, . . .

    Then having observed and understood the danger . . .

    Step 3 .Think, decide and then . . .

    Step 4. Act accordingly.

    Some examples –

    For example a) above, the ‘three way cross-over;

    The rider may decide the best course of action is to leave the narrow sealed section and move onto the gravel verge, so that two cars, or two trucks, or a car Vs truck can pass each other without risking the rider’s life!
    ,
    (Hence the need for suitable width tyres if the decision is to leave the tarmac)

    For example b) above, the ‘blind bend ahead’

    Having noted a blind corner abut 400m ahead, then checked the mirror and seen that a vehicle is approaching from behind, (the first two stages of a system of car control) Instead of just continuing towards that blind corner at speed, the rider might simply decide to slow down a bit, until that vehicle has gone past.

    If that overtake has happened at least 200m before the blind spot, then even if another vehicle appears from that blind spot, then there is no danger to the cyclist. Where-as if the cyclist had continued on at speed, . . . .!

    The System of Car Control It is just as applicable to cyclists as to drivers. More so IMO as a cyclist’s tolerance to a collision is far less than for a driver!

    Step #1 – Scan the situation ahead (and recognise a danger when you see it)
    Step #2 – Check your mirror regularly, but especially at trigger points, to get the full picture – the full situation that you are in!
    Step #3 – Based on the observations, front, back and side, decide on best course of action
    Step #4 – Act – change speed, direction, or position.

    (if time, signal to other road users. But sometimes there is no time! And on a bike, taking a hand of the bar can be in itself dangerous!

    Without seeing the whole situation (no mirror), and without the knowledge and experience it is very hard to do the thinking, to make a good decision, on the best course of action

    Without a mirror, you are only ever going to see half the ‘story’. And much of the danger comes from behind!

    Below is just one link to the system of car / motor-bike / bicycle control.
    There are many. All with their slight variation to their title, but otherwise basically the same – See (front and back), Think, Act

    https://www.drivingnt.com/tips/system.html

    I would love to see a lightweight, non vibration, (carbon fibre?) mount that could be used on drop bars so that the mirror is above the height of the brake/gear levers, and outside of the fore-arm/elbow. Hence the mirror much closer to the eyes. Maybe a project for a university engineering faculty?

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